Welton Tribe Newsletter

A newsletter from Welton Tribe, a portion of Welton Academy, led by Jim and Carolyn Welton:

This afternoon, while searching our property for wildflowers (a.k.a. weeds) with our four-year-old granddaughter, we came upon a large patch of a specific kind. Then she spotted the common white clover. We usually gather various species and search in a book with pictures, descriptions, and traditional uses. When comparing our finds with the listing in the book, we began to realize our property was covered with an incredible variety of good things—more than we had ever imagined!

What we have received is not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may understand what God has freely given us (1 Corinthians 2:12).

Eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor have entered into the heart of man, the things which God has prepared for those who love Him (1 Corinthians 2:9 NKJV).

On your feet now. Get started…..I’m handing it over to you—it’s all yours. Go ahead, take it… (Deuteronomy 2:24–25 MSG).

Then God said to me:  Look, I’ve got the ball rolling—Sihon and his land are soon yours. Go ahead. Take it. It’s practically yours! (Deuteronomy 2:31 MSG).

In many areas of Christianity, contending in prayer and taking ground that already belongs to us have become lost arts. We have become mesmerized by teachings on sovereignty, and we don’t realize our own responsibility to get up and get going. When God says that He has given us something, He expects us to arise, make a plan, and move forward in faith to take possession of it. When He says He has given us something, there is no longer a question as to what His will is. His will is for us to go forward and take possession of it. We must stop endlessly seeking and questioning whether things are His will or not. He has laid out all sorts of good things in front of us. He has hidden His will in plain view. He has provided all we need for life and godliness. Now the ball is in our court. Will we go forward and possess our inheritance, or will we hold back in fear and choose the familiar and comfortable? It is always an individual choice.

Before us is our particular territory. It doesn’t matter what or who is residing in it right now. We have been given the title deed and the bill of sale. Let’s go in and take possession. We searched for what we knew we already had in our yard and found so much more. The principle applies to the inheritance we have received from our Father. We need to go searching and discovering all we possess. So much more is available than we’re presently aware of.

The more steps we take, the further in we go.

The further in we go, the more we possess.

The more we possess, the more we realize what He’s given us.

The more we realize, the more steps we can take.

It is a circle of process.

The more we discover, the more we realize how much more there is to experience.

If we had stayed only in the main portion of our yard and never ventured to the edges or the back, we would still believe our property is made up only of cut green grass, a few dandelions here and there, and other weeds that are mowed down weekly. But when we went in search of something new, we discovered much more than we expected. The same is true with each of our lives. Go searching for something new in Him! Go beyond the familiar. Go beyond the comfortable and the things you already know. Remember, he or she who seeks will find (see Matt. 7:7).

In closing, here is a prophetic word from 1969:

Do not hold back, but launch out, says the Lord. Fear not that the waters do not open. For as the soles of your feet do enter, they shall open. Fear not, but launch out into that which the Lord does place before you. He shall make it clear. Has He not led you this far? Has He not revealed to you His voice? His way? His plan? You have seen it as something afar off, but surely the Lord has not left you. Surely the Lord does lead you. He would take you by the hand and lead you up to a high plane, a plane of ministry, a plane of worship, a plane where you can see from another perspective the works of Almighty God. Yes, walk with Him; do not hold back. Launch out. Launch out beyond your ankles, beyond the knees, yes even, beyond your loins. Launch out into the waters that there are to swim in. You shall swim. The Lord will undergird you. You shall be strong, for He is the One who has led you. Yes, He is the One who brought you out into a new place. Only do not hold back!

~ Jim and Carolyn Welton


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All Israel will be saved?

Many popular end-time preachers like to start their teachings about Israel in Romans 11:26, “And so in this way, all Israel will be saved.”

From here they declare that a future revival of the Jewish people will bring the entire nation of Israel to Jesus. Regardless of whether this passage means that or not, I agree with their heart’s desire, I also want to see this happen in Israel and every other nation on the face of the earth!

Notice that in Romans 11:26, it begins with: “And so in this way…” Paul is about to conclude a thought that he has been developing. Most of Paul’s thought has been developed between chapters 9-11, but actually the thought is threaded throughout the whole book of Romans.

In Romans, Paul is showing that God is no longer focused on racial barriers. “No longer is race of any consequence, but faith is the distinguishing mark of God’s true people. Thus God shows no favoritism” (Rom. 2:11).

According to Paul, “A person is not a Jew who is one only outwardly, nor is circumcision merely outward and physical. No, a person is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is circumcision of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a person’s praise is not from other people, but from God.” (Rom 2:28-29)

Paul goes on to claim that Abraham is not the father of just the Jewish people, but that he is the father of those that walk in faith: “Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be by grace and may be guaranteed to all Abraham’s offspring – not only to those who are of the law but also to those who have the faith of Abraham. He is the father of us all. As it is written: I have made you a father of many nations.” (Rom 4:16-17)

The strongest stance from Paul on this comes early in Romans chapter nine. “It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they al Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.” In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.” (Rom 9:6-8)

So far, Paul has stated that (1) God doesn’t show racial favor, (2) those that are of faith (no matter Jew or Gentile) are Abraham’s true descendants and (3) that those that are Abraham’s descendants in the natural (the Jews) aren’t considered to be Israel in the eyes of God automatically, only those that are holding to faith in Jesus are considered Israel.

Paul restates his argument in Romans 10:12: “For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile – the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him”

This is the background which leads the reader to the context for Paul’s summary conclusion in Romans 11:26, “And so in this way…” In what way Paul? Paul’s conclusion is that God only regards people of faith in Jesus as the true Israel. Thus in that way, all Israel will be saved!

Try as we might to rebuild the wall of racial division, Jesus came to tear that wall down and he made Jew and Gentile into one new man. That is a past-tense accomplished fact, not a promise for the future. My admonition would be: Don’t let racist teachers misguide you back to living under the Old Covenant.


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Future Jewish Revival?

#EndTimeMyth’s Busted: One New Man Theology


I was recently reading a book that was making claims of a future Jewish revival based on passages from Romans and Ephesians. Let’s take a look and see if we can actually find the predictions that this author was claiming.


“[My] view points to Paul’s teaching that the Jews were hardened for a time (Rom 11:7-8), but a day will come in the future when He will open their eyes to recognize Jesus as Messiah. This understanding sees the Jews as still having God’s promise that assures them of a future awakening. Therefore, a major revival will take place among the Jews, resulting in Jews and Gentiles worshipping Jesus Christ together.”


Based on the Romans passage that the author references, I cannot see how he has arrived at such elaborate conclusions. Take a look for yourself:


“What then? What the people of Israel sought so earnestly they did not obtain. The elect among them did, but the others were hardened, as it is written: “God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that could not see and ears that could not hear, to this very day.” Romans 11:7-8


Yes, it does say they were hardened. And if you read the larger context of Romans 11:1-7, you will easily see that Paul shows that Israel in his day was like Israel in the days of Elijah. That in both time periods there was a Godly remnant and a larger group that was hard hearted toward God. If Paul was writing a prophecy about a future “major revival,” wouldn’t he be much clearer? Yet there is nothing in this passage that indicates a future Major Revival 2000+ years in the future.


Yet the popular verse to quote is Romans 11:26b “All Israel will be saved.” Supposedly, this verse is predicting a future Jewish revival. But that isn’t true either.


When it is read in context, a different picture is drawn:  “I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and in this way all Israel will be saved.” (Romans 11:25-26)


Three observations

(1) Israel has experienced a partial hardening while the Gentiles are getting saved.

(2) and in this way – this is a qualifier to the statement – all Israel will be saved. (the question should be, “in what way will all Israel be saved?”)

(3) To make the claim that this passage is saying that someday in the future, God will soften Israel and then a massive Jewish revival will take place is to abusively force one’s interpretation into the text.


There is no doubt that Romans 11 is a challenging passage, but it doesn’t declare a future Jewish revival.


Those that believe they can find this future Jewish revival in Romans refer to their movement as: The One New Man, based out of Ephesians 2. They believe that Paul promises that someday in the future Jews and Gentiles will have the dividing wall broken down. They read Ephesians 2, about what Jesus has already done, as if it is a future prophecy to still happen!


“Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called “Uncircumcision” by the so-called “Circumcision,” which is performed in the flesh by human hands—remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.

But now [not future] in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been [past tense] brought near by the blood of Christ. For He Himself is our peace, who made [past tense] both groups into one and broke [past tense] down the barrier of the dividing wall, by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity.

AND HE CAME [past tense] AND PREACHED PEACE TO YOU WHO WERE FAR AWAY, AND PEACE TO THOSE WHO WERE NEAR; for through Him we both have our access [past tense] in one Spirit to the Father. So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone, in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit. (Ephesians 2:11-22 NASB)


There is no way to read the passage and miss the clear fact that Jesus already accomplished this. There is no “one new man” coming in the future! Stop buying into the hype. So long as we are waiting for a future revival, we won’t have one today. Let’s go get everyone saved today! We are waiting for nothing!


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When was the Old Covenant to New Covenant transition?

There are two things that most Christians understand about the Old and New Covenants

  1. Jesus Started the New Covenant at the Cross
  2. Jesus Ended the Old Covenant at the Cross

Yet there is a third aspect which extremely few Christians (even many respected teachers) understand, which is the fact that the Old Covenant didn’t immediately disappear at the Cross, but (3.) it began a process of disintegration which completed when the Temple was destroyed in 70AD.

To not understand this third aspect is to misread much of the context of the New Testament.

The clearest picture of this fading is in Hebrews 8:13: “By calling this covenant “new,” he has made the first one obsolete; and what is obsolete and outdated will soon disappear.”  

Yes the cross made the Mosaic Covenant obsolete and outdated in 30AD, but it was still in the process of disappearing, which was completed in 70AD. Another picture is in First John: “For the darkness is disappearing and the true light is already shining.” -1 John 2:8b (NLT) In the New Testament, the Old Covenant is consistently referred to a time of darkness and the New Covenant is shown to be an age of light. Based on that imagery, the New Covenant light was already shining since the cross, but the darkness was still in process of disappearing.  

Also the Apostle Paul speaks of that OC Age passing away and the Temple System rulers passing away with it:

“Yet among the mature we do impart wisdom, although it is not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are doomed to pass away.” 1 Cor. 2:6 ESV

“Yet we do speak wisdom among those who are mature; a wisdom, however, not of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, who are passing away.” 1 Cor. 2:6 NASB


When a teacher only acknowledges that the OC was made obsolete at 30AD and the NC was established at 30AD, but they ignore that the OC lingered until its removal in 70AD, the whole backdrop of the New Testament will be distorted. Debates that were raging in the early church such as the following will make no sense: who is a true Jew (Rom 9:6-9), are genders and races equal (Gal 3:28), does circumcision still matter (Gal. 6:15), and what of OC celebrations (Col. 2:16)? These debates only make sense in between 30-70AD, but should not extend beyond that time period. Oh that all good teachers of the Word would begin to understand this simple concept which clarifies so much of the New Testament!


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The End of Judaism?!

As I mentioned a couple blogs ago, I have been discussing eschatology with a good friend of mine that sees things a bit differently. One of the sticking points has been our different view of “what the disciples were thinking when they asked Jesus about “the end of the age” (Matt. 24:3)

I have taught in Raptureless and Welton Academy, that this verse is speaking of the End of the Age of the Mosaic Covenant. My friend feels strongly about Israel and says that this verse couldn’t mean the end of Judaism.

At first glance, he presents some historical contextual information, which seems to make his point a strong one. And I quote:

“To understand Jewish thinking of that time period, we must separate ourselves from modern explanations of end-times, which are numerous and varied. We must go back to study the Jewish teachings of the first century.

The Jews living in the time of Jesus commonly believed:

  • 1)  A Messiah, born of the family of David, will come and establish a Kingdom;
  • 2)  The Messiah’s Kingdom will battle and overcome all of the enemies of the Jews.
  • 3)  The Messiah’s Kingdom will triumph, ushering in an age of worldwide peace and prosperity— known as the Messianic Age.

This was the most common understanding of Jews living in the first century. They were looking for the Messiah to come, establish a Kingdom, and bring in the Messianic Age.”

My friend is 100% correct, this is inescapably what the first century Jew believed. My friend goes on to explain that the disciples couldn’t have been asking about the end of Judaism because they didn’t envision such an end. To which I say, Yes! That is correct, they didn’t envision an end of Judaism, but they did envision an end of the Mosaic Old Covenant Age in which they were living and that is what they were asking Jesus about. The end of Judaism and the end of the Mosaic Old Covenant Age are not at all the same expectation as my friend has mistaken. The reason that the disciples were expecting the Mosaic system to be destroyed was because the Torah had told them so!

Deuteronomy 30:15-18:

See, I set before you today life and prosperity, death and destruction. 16 For I command you today to love the Lord your God, to walk in obedience to him, and to keep his commands, decrees and laws; then you will live and increase, and the Lord your God will bless you in the land you are entering to possess. 17 But if your heart turns away and you are not obedient, and if you are drawn away to bow down to other gods and worship them, 18 I declare to you this day that you will certainly be destroyed. You will not live long in the land you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess.

Deuteronomy 31:16-22:

16 And the Lord said to Moses: “You are going to rest with your ancestors, and these people will soon prostitute themselves to the foreign gods of the land they are entering. They will forsake me and break the covenant I made with them. 17 And in that day I will become angry with them and forsake them; I will hide my face from them, and they will be destroyed. Many disasters and calamities will come on them, and in that day they will ask, ‘Have not these disasters come on us because our God is not with us?’ 18 And I will certainly hide my face in that day because of all their wickedness in turning to other gods.

19 “Now write down this song and teach it to the Israelites and have them sing it, so that it may be a witness for me against them. 20 When I have brought them into the land flowing with milk and honey, the land I promised on oath to their ancestors, and when they eat their fill and thrive, they will turn to other gods and worship them, rejecting me and breaking my covenant. 21 And when many disasters and calamities come on them, this song will testify against them, because it will not be forgotten by their descendants. I know what they are disposed to do, even before I bring them into the land I promised them on oath.” 22 So Moses wrote down this song that day and taught it to the Israelites.

The reality is that the Mosaic Covenant was temporary and doomed to fail. God predicted to Moses the failure of Israel and told him to write down a song of judgment (Deut 32:1-43) to remind them why God was judging them when the judgment came. And when did this song get pulled out and sung over Israel? In Revelation 15:3-4 regarding Jerusalem in 70AD (not Rome) and the destruction of the Mosaic Old Covenant Age.

Jesus arrival was not the end of Judaism, it was the inclusion of all nations into a New Covenant, which supplanted the limited (and doomed) previous covenant of Blessings and Curses. It was the end of the Old Covenant Age.



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Literal New Heaven and New Earth?!?

I have grown up most of my life believing that Revelation 21-22 is about a literal future place known as the New Heaven and the New Earth. It was only in the last 5 years that I began to go through a massive shift in my understanding.

I have come to the place in my study of the Bible that I always aim to use a Historical Contextual Hermeneutic, which means that I try to understand what the first readers of the Bible would have understood. This is the opposite of how many modern readers impose their modern understanding upon the text. Many do not put themselves into the shoes of the first century reader and thus they end up being extremely literal when they read passages that are meant to be figures of speech.

So what did the first century reader understand a New Heaven and New Earth to be? Was it a figure of speech or something that we should take literally?


Let’s start with the basic understanding of “heaven and earth” in the first century.

Jesus says in Matthew 5:18 “For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.”

We have likely read over this passage many times and not thought through the implications of this verse. It gives us a choice between two options.

Heaven and earth exist = 100% of the Law is still in force

Heaven and earth disappear = the Law can disappear


So then, if we understand heaven and earth to be the literal physical earth, then 100% of the Mosaic Old Covenant Law is still in force until the end of this planet. Including the Temple sacrifices and the 3 annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem, etc. Not one Jot or Tittle has passed.

Or could Jesus be using a figure of speech that everyone in the first century understood?

Either Jesus was talking about something else or the Law is 100% in effect currently, until the planet is destroyed.

We gain another clue the next time Jesus mentions heaven and earth in Matthew 24:35 “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away.”


As you know, Matthew 24 is about the destruction of the temple in the first century. Yet Jesus throws this comment in there. Why? Because the first century people referred to the temple system as “heaven and earth.”

Sources as early as Josephus extrapolate that the very design was after the design of heaven and earth:


…for if any one do but consider the fabric of the tabernacle, and take a view of the garments of the high priest, and of those vessels which we make use of in our sacred ministration, he will find that our legislator was a divine man, and that we are unjustly reproached by others; for if any one do without prejudice, and with judgment, look upon these things, he will find they were everyone made in way of imitation and representation of the universe. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the seas, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the seas, because that color is dyed by the blood of a seas shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven; for how otherwise could the name of God be inscribed upon it? That it was also illustrated with a crown, and that of gold also, is because of that splendor with which God is pleased. Let this explication suffice at present, since the course of my narration will often, and on many occasions, afford me the opportunity of enlarging upon the virtue of our legislator.

– Josephus


John Lightfoot (1602-1675), the highly respected author of the four volume series, A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica, observed how heaven and earth is used in the New Testament: the “passing away of heaven and earth” is the “destruction of Jerusalem and the whole Jewish state…as if the whole frame of this world were to be dissolved.”

Maimonides also observed in the 12th century that:

The Arabs likewise [as the Hebrew prophets] say of a person who has met with a serious accident, “His heavens, together with his earth, have been covered”; and when they speak of the approach of a nation’s prosperity, they say, “The light of the sun and moon has increased,” A new heaven and a new earth has been created,” or they use similar phrases.


And lastly for good measure, consider Charles Spurgeon’s words:

Did you ever regret the absence of the burnt-offering, or the red heifer, or any one of the sacrifices and rites of the Jews? Did you ever pine for the feast of tabernacles, or the dedication? No, because, though these were like the old heavens and earth to the Jewish believers, they have passed away, and we now live under new heavens and a new earth, so far as the dispensation of the divine teaching is concerned. The substance is come, and the shadow has gone: and we do not remember it.

So then what am I saying about Revelation 21-22?

Many Christians see the Book of Revelation as an orderly sequence of events, which finalizes at the end of human history in chapters 21-22 with a New Heaven and New Earth. Yet the text itself proves this view to be flawed.

If Revelation 21-22 is the picture of the final perfect order of the future world after the Final Judgment and return of Jesus, then what about the following imperfections:

  1. How are there evil people existing just outside the gates of the city?

14 “Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. 15 Outside are the dogs, those who practice magic arts, the sexually immoral, the murderers, the idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.

Rev 22:14-15


  1. The leaves are for the healing of the nations, but wouldn’t the nations already be healed?

“On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations.”

Rev 22:2


  1. How are there still nations and monarchies existing outside the city?

“The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it.”

Rev 21:24


Are we to take this literally and suppose that the city will actually extend 1400 miles above the surface of the earth?

16 The city was laid out like a square, as long as it was wide. He measured the city with the rod and found it to be 12,000 stadia [approx. 1400 miles] in length, and as wide and high* as it is long.

Rev 21:16


*(Currently the world’s tallest building stands at 2,722 ft, which is .5 miles tall. Planes fly in the Jetstream at 6-7 miles high, and Outer space begins at 62 miles. The New Jerusalem will supposedly extend 1338 miles into Outer space…if we are to be so literal.)


Clearly to take New Heavens and New Earth in a literal wooden fashion is akin to believing in childish fantasies such as Santa Claus and the Tooth fairy. Jesus and the Apostles of the first century were simply using the cultural vernacular of the day when they referred to the Old Covenant Temple system being destroyed by fire as the “heavens and the earth passing away” and the New Covenant System taking its place as the “New Heavens and the New Earth.”

Revelation 21-22 is not about the end of human history. Obviously the work is not completed in those chapters and Jesus is “making all things new” still (Rev. 21:5). The picture that John is drawing is the same picture that he draws throughout the entire book, a New Covenant world has arrived and we must get to work.


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Is Rome the Mystery Harlot City Babylon?

In the Book of Revelation, it is clear that the Beast represents Rome, it is also equally clear that the Babylonian Harlot City is Not Rome. Here are three reasons that the Babylonian Harlot cannot also be Rome.

1. The Harlot rides the Beast, so does Rome ride on Rome? (Rev 17:3)

2. The Beast hates the Harlot and destroys her with fire. Does Rome hate Rome and destroy Rome with Fire? (“The beast and the ten horns you saw will hate the prostitute. They will bring her to ruin and leave her naked; they will eat her flesh and burn her with fire.” Rev 17:16)

3. If the Beast and the Harlot are both Rome, how does the Beast wage war on Jesus after the Harlot is destroyed? (In Rev 18:21-24 Babylon, the Harlot city is finally completely destroyed, whereas in Rev 19:19-21, the Beast gathers to wage war against Jesus, but is thrown into the lake of fire.)

To say that the Beast is Rome is a completely reasonable and favorable interpretation, which most commentators have chosen over church history. But to say that the Great City, Babylon the Harlot is also Rome is unreasonable once you examine the interactions between the Beast and the Harlot. They absolutely cannot both refer to Rome.*

*Some teachers have hypothesized that the Harlot represents the spiritual principality behind Rome. This would mean that the Beast [Rome] hated the principality behind Rome, and burned the principality with fire, then after the principality fell (not because of God, but because Rome cast it down?!?) then later the Beast [Rome] was judged separately without an evil principality. I hope you can see how this concept does not come from healthy exegesis.


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